Far-Right Parties and the Jews in the 1930s

The Antisemitic Turn of Italian Fascism Reconsidered through a Comparison with the French Case

  • Nicola D'Elia
Keywords: Italian fascism, antisemitism, transnational approach, French antisemitism, Benito Mussolini


The Italian fascist turn toward antisemitism is a very controversial topic, which especially in recent decades has provoked much debate among historians. By adopting a transnational approach that compares the Italian and French cases, this article aims to show that it is a mistake to equate Benito Mussolini’s movement with Adolf Hitler’s National Socialism with regard to their approaches to the ‘Jewish question’, as antisemitism is not inextricably linked to fascism. Above all, it suggests that a key factor driving the Italian fascist regime toward antisemitism was the increasing influence that Nazi Germany began to exert upon the entire far-right movement in Europe after 1933.