Instruments of Murder

Einsatzgruppen Officers’ Leadership Styles and their Effect on Followers’ Motivations


  • Maayan Armelin Clark University



Leadership styles, Holocaust in the Soviet Union, Einsatzgruppen, Holocaust perpetrators


The article follows two Einsatzgruppen officers and explores how their leadership styles encouraged rank and file members under their command to participate in mass executions. Reading into postwar testimonies, the study traces the historical, social, and organizational factors that shaped the officers’ approaches, and how they manifested during their Einsatzgruppen operations. The inquiry utilizes social psychology to distinguish and characterize each leadership style, and to assess how their separate and combined influences prompted followers’ apparent willingness to participate in mass murder.




How to Cite

Armelin, Maayan. 2022. “Instruments of Murder: Einsatzgruppen Officers’ Leadership Styles and Their Effect on Followers’ Motivations”. S: I.M.O.N. Shoah: Intervention. Methods. Documentation. 9 (1):71-78.